La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica 2018-10-16T06:12:34+02:00 Francesca Baccino Open Journal Systems <p><strong>La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica&nbsp;</strong>(Medical and Surgical Pediatrics) publishes original papers in the field of basic science, clinical and laboratory research pertinent to medical and surgical pediatrics.</p> <p>In addition to Original Articles, <strong>La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica&nbsp;</strong>(Medical and Surgical Pediatrics) welcomes Editorials (on invitation), Brief Reports, Letters to the Editor and Book Reviews as well. All manuscripts are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review. Manuscripts must be written in English or Italian.</p> Transscrotal orchidopexy for palpable cryptorchid testis: follow-up and outcomes 2018-10-16T06:12:25+02:00 Alfonso Papparella Giovanni Cobellis Laura De Rosa Carmine Noviello <p>We retrospectively reviewed the results of transscrotal orchidopexy in the surgical management of palpable testis. From January 2014 to June 2017, 130 male children with a total of 140 palpable undescended testes (UDT) underwent transscrotal orchidopexy. The charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, preoperative position and mobility of the testis, patency of the peritoneal vaginal duct (PVD), and post-operative complications. The resting position of the testis and its traction towards the scrotum were assessed before surgery and under anaesthesia. The mean age of the patients was 4.6 years. The position of the testis assessed at surgery was in most cases at the external inguinal ring (62.8%), at the neck of the scrotum (15.7%), in the inguinal canal (12.8%), or in an ectopic position (8,5%). A PVD was found in 66 testes (47.1%). Two surgical cases required an inguinal incision. In each patient, the postoperative course was unremarkable. The testicle at 1-year follow-up was in a scrotal position in 134 cases, but 6 patients required a second surgical intervention for re-ascent of the testis. No testicular atrophy or inguinal hernias were observed. Transscrotal orchidopexy is a simple and effective procedure for the treatment of palpable UDT. The incidence of complications is low and manageable, with rapid postoperative recovery and early resumption of normal activities.</p> 2018-10-03T11:59:45+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical side effects after oral administration of palm oil and Alchornea cordifolia decoction in a child 2018-10-16T06:12:26+02:00 Paulo Muntu Bunga Jephté Bambi Nzita Gerry Mubungu Sophie Nyembo Mangaza Nono Joelle Seudjip Michel Ntetani Aloni <p><em>Alchornea cordifolia</em> is known to be a plant with a variety of medicinal properties and is quoted by many traditional healers to treat a variety of medicinal problems in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, very little is known about its potential toxicity. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy referred for assessment of suspected bronchial troubles without a history of atopic disease or drug allergy who developed dyspnea, dysphagia, asthenia and lingual ulcers within 30 minutes after nasal and oral administration of decoction of palm oil associated with <em>A. cordifolia</em> leaves in water. In the present report, adverse effects of <em>A. cordifolia</em> therapy may be related to the mixtures of active compounds that they contain and can cause the symptoms observed in our patient. These findings call for caution in the use of <em>A. cordifolia</em> especially in children.</p> 2018-09-26T12:08:16+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transient femoral nerve palsy in spica cast treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip 2018-10-16T06:12:27+02:00 Luisella Pedrotti Barbara Bertani Gabriella Tuvo Redento Mora Mario Mosconi Federica De Rosa <p>A 4 months and half female child come to our attention for congenital dislocation of the left hip, previously treated in another hospital with abduction bracing, without satisfactory results. After progressive longitudinal bilateral traction, closed reduction under general anesthesia was performed and a spica cast was applied in the so-called<em> human position</em>. The patients remained in the spica cast for 6 weeks and then the plaster cast was renewed in narcosis for another 6 weeks. Once the second cast has been removed left femoral nerve palsy was detected. Orthopaedic treatment was interrupted and in 3 months the nerve completely recovered, while the hip was still stable. We followed the child regularly since then, she is now five years old, she is totally asymptomatic, X-rays shows a residual acetabular dysplasia, with no sign of avascular necrosis.</p> 2018-09-26T12:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Robotic removal of Müllerian duct remnants in pediatric patients: our experience and a review of the literature 2018-10-16T06:12:28+02:00 Mario Lima Michela Maffi Niel Di Salvo Giovanni Ruggeri Michele Libri Tommaso Gargano Hubert Lardy <p>Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome is a disorder of sexual development, which features a failure of involution of Müllerian structures. An enlarged prostatic utricle is a kind of Müllerian duct remnant (MDR) with a tubular shaped structure communicating with the prostatic urethra. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms when present, preserve fertility and prevent neoplastic degeneration. We describe 3 cases of successful robot assisted-removal of symptomatic MDRs. The first case came to our attention for pseudo-incontinence; the other two for recurrent urinary tract infections. The patients have not presented such symptoms anymore on follow-up. We then reviewed existent literature on authors who have recently investigated the main issues concerning MDRs and have attempted a roboticassisted approach on them. Robot-assisted laparoscopy can be considered a valid, safe and effective minimally-invasive technique for the primary treatment of prostatic utricle.</p> 2018-05-30T17:33:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Kearns-Sayre syndrome is genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous 2018-10-16T06:12:28+02:00 Josef Finsterer Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub <p>Not available.</p> 2018-05-29T11:40:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Torsion of huge epididymal cyst in a 16-year-old boy: case report and review of the literature 2018-10-16T06:12:29+02:00 Cosimo Bleve Maria Luisa Conighi Valeria Bucci Lorenzo Costa Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza <p>Epididymal cysts (ECs) are relatively common in adults, rare in children. Normally their treatment is conservative. They may be situated anywhere in the organ, frequently in the region of the head. Torsion of these cysts is extremely rare in both children and adults, causing acute scrotal swelling. The diagnosis is intraoperative. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Divisional Clinic by the treating physician for scrotal swelling appeared 4 months earlier. Absence of a history of minor scrotal trauma. Ultrasonography showed a 40×50 mm fluid-filled right para-testicular mass. We performed surgery finding a large black cyst connected to the head of the epididymis with 720°-degrees rotation. Histology revealed an acquired EC. The particularity of our case is due to the absence of symptoms in association with a big EC twisted of 720° degrees. This is the only case reported in literature. All patients with EC torsion reported presented symptoms related to acute scrotum.</p> 2018-05-29T11:22:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Robot-assisted thoracoscopic repair of a late-onset Bochdalek hernia: a case report 2018-10-16T06:12:31+02:00 Mario Lima Niel Di Salvo Sara Ugolini Michele Libri Giovanni Ruggeri Bochdalek hernia (BH) is a major malformation that consists of a postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect through which abdominal contents can migrate into the thorax. It is most commonly a neonatal pathology associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rarely, this type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) presents later in life, some even in adulthood. Indications for surgery are not clear even though the majority of authors, being aware of the possible severe complications, recommend surgical correction in all cases. Many surgical approaches have been tried for this pathology, both open (laparotomic or thoracotomic) and minimally invasive (laparoscopic or thoracoscopic). We report a case of a late-onset BH corrected with a robot-assisted thoracoscopic procedure. The use of robotic technology for CDH has never been described to date. 2018-05-25T11:32:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Laparoscopic treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts in children: single-center experience 2018-10-16T06:12:32+02:00 Antonio Marte Lucia Pintozzi Simple renal cysts, although common in adults, are rare in children. They are usually discovered incidentally in the course of the study of other urinary tract symptoms, although they are not always asymptomatic. Renal cysts can be classified as being either simple or complex. The purpose of this review is to present our case series of simple symptomatic renal cysts treated with laparoscopy. Nineteen patients with symptomatic renal cysts (6 to 13.5 cm) were referred to our institution between January 2006 and January 2017. They comprised 12 (40.5%) females and seven (59.5%) males, aged 8 to 15, with a mean age of 12.2 years. Of these patients, nine had previously been treated unsuccessfully by ultrasound-guided aspiration/alcoholization with 95%-ethanol, between 9 and 13 months prior to the laparoscopy. Five patients had undergone one treatment and four had undergone two treatments. All of the patients were treated by laparoscopic threetrocar deroofing. The cysts were opened and the wall excised using scissors and a monopolar hook. In most cases, to better handle the edges of the cyst and obtain a better grip, a needle was used to aspirate a small amount of fluid (used for cytological examination). The wall of the cyst was excised, the cyst edges were sealed, and the perirenal fat was placed on the bottom of the cyst (wadding technique). The mean operating time was 95 minutes (range 50- 150). The postoperative course was uneventful for all of the patients. The hospital stay ranged from one to three days. All of the patients were asymptomatic following the treatment. At a mean follow-up time of 3.6 years, none of the patients had experienced a recurrence. Renal function, as assessed by a MAG3 renal scintigraphy scan, was well-preserved in all of the patients, and all of them undergo an annual ultrasound scan. 2018-05-24T15:01:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Functional gastrointestinal disorders in newborns: nutritional perspectives 2018-10-16T06:12:33+02:00 Roberto Bellù Manuela Condò Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) definition in children has changed over the years trying to facilitate clinicians, because the diagnostic process is complicated by the interpretation variability of symptoms described by children or by their caregivers for newborns and toddlers. This review refers to the Rome IV classification system, drafted in 2016. FGIDs pathophysiology is multifactorial and still poor understood, with limitations for the therapeutic process, which results often in unnecessary and alternative treatments trying to reduce the relevant caregiver distress, but with increased costs for families and for the National Health Service. This study reports the most recent evidence-based treatments for FGIDs in newborns: though in most cases the first action is an educational and behavioral intervention, reassuring caregivers about the transient and self-limiting natural history of FGIDs, there is now more evidence to recommend probiotics in some infant FGIDs. 2018-05-23T12:09:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional management of surgical newborns and infants in the acute phase and during follow up 2018-10-16T06:12:34+02:00 Fabio Mosca The neonatal period represents a crucial stage of life since it is characterized by the development of organ structure and function. Early life is particularly susceptible to environmental factors through a programming effect. As a result, inadequate nutrition in early life leads to long-term mental and physical developmental alterations and increased mortality and morbidity. In this review, we will summarize available evidence with a particular focus on metabolic responses to surgical trauma, nutritional strategies that can be implemented in surgical infants and specific barriers to nutritional support after surgery. 2018-05-23T11:43:11+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##